Thus the energy carried and the intensity I of an electromagnetic wave is proportional to E 2 and B 2. Frequency is expressed in waves per second. • Light travels as an electromagnetic wave. Its formula is given by. The velocity of electromagnetic radiation is the velocity of light (c), ie where, μo is the permeability and is the permittivity of free space. One cannot test the wave and the particle nature at the same time. Wave Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation: James Maxwell (1870) was the first to give a comprehensive explanation about the interaction between the charged bodies and the behavior of electrical and magnetic fields on the macroscopic level. The wave-like property of electromagnetic radiation is due to the periodic oscillations of these components. This establishes the wave nature of radiation. )_____s of light carries a 2. Electromagnetic nature of radiations is explained by James Maxwell (1870). Atomic Line spectra B. Electron Diffraction C. Photoelectric Effect D. X-ray Diffarction. Only photons whose energy exceeds a … Wave Motion • Wave motion is the transfer of energy without matter. In fact, for a continuous sinusoidal electromagnetic wave, the average intensity I ave is given by Which of the following can be explained only by the wave nature of electromagnetic radiation? One wave—or cycle—per second is called a Hertz (Hz), after Heinrich Hertz who established the existence of radio waves. It means the force because of the radiation pressure of visible light on the surface area of 10 cm2 is ( 7 푥 10-6) x ( 10 푥 10-4 )= 7 푥 10-9 N. Radiation is a form of energy. ¾ Wave nature of radiation: The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light. Perhaps the most significant prediction of Maxwell’s equations is the existence of combined electric and magnetic (or electromagnetic) fields that propagate through space as electromagnetic waves. • Light travels through the vacuum of space – unlike sound. Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation has a wave-particle nature, that the energy of a quantum, or photon, depends on the frequency of the radiation, and that the energy of the photon is given by the formula Ephoton=hv. Electromagnetic Radiation Wave-particle duality § Nature of a wave § Characterized by a frequency (ν) or wavelength (λ) § Velocity = c (in a vacuum) § Photons (particle) § A discrete quantity of electromagnetic radiation § Velocity = c (in a vacuum) § Rest mass = 0 0. The wave nature of light describes many aspects of its behavior. Electromagnetic radiation is so-named because it has electric and magnetic fields that simultaneously oscillate in planes mutually perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation through space. Radio waves, X rays, and gamma radiation are included in a single electromagnetic-wave spectrum (Figure 1). Each 1. One kind is particulate radiation, which involves tiny fast-moving particles that have both energy and mass. The number of crests that pass a given point within one second is described as the frequency of the wave. Photon. Planck Radiation Law Let us now consider the application of statistical thermodynamics to electromagnetic radiation. The electric field associated with an electromagnetic wave in vacuum is given by E=i 40 cos (kz-6x10 8 t), where E, z= and t are in volt/m, metre and second respectively. The spectrum of electromagnetic radiation is given below – It is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature, together with the … Mathematical formulation. A wave with two cycles that pass a point in one second has a frequency of 2 Hz. Light • Light is a form of energy known as electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum encompasses all wave frequencies, including radio, visible light and X-rays. Electromagnetic spectrum consists of various types of electromagnetic radiations which differ from one another in wavelength or frequency. In electromagnetic waves, the amplitude is the maximum field strength of the electric and magnetic fields. • It travels at 300 000 km/s thejetlife.com 3. And the speed at which these waves travel is the speed of light, c, and by c I mean three times 10 to the eight meters per second, because light is just and Electromagnetic wave, light is a special example, one particular example of Electromagnetic waves, but it is only one … These fields are transmitted in the forms of waves called electromagnetic waves or electromagnetic radiation. The energy of the photon is related to the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation according to: \n Planck's constant \n . 9 Electromagnetic radiation has the dual nature: its exhibits wave properties and particulate properties. The value of radiation pressure for the visible is 7 푥 10-6 Nm-2. One cannot test the wave and the particle nature at the same time. The number of waves per second multiplied by the wave's length will tell you how fast the wave is moving. Fields (ESADJ) Accelerating charges emit electromagnetic waves. He suggested that when electrically charged particles move with an acceleration alternating electrical and magnetic fields are produced and transmitted. Fields (ESADJ) Accelerating charges emit electromagnetic waves. The number of complete wavelengths, or cycles, that pass a given point in 1 second is the frequency of the wave (frequency=cycles/second) Electromagnetic radiation has both electric and magnetic properties. 2.3.1 Wave Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation. A wave-type experiment shows the wave nature, and a particle-type experiment shows particle nature. Electromagnetic nature of radiations is explained by James Maxwell (1870). A photon is a quantum (energy packet) of light. Particulate radiation is primarily produced by disintegration of an … The relation between the frequency ω of oscillations of an electric field E and magnetic field H and the wavelength λ of an electromagnetic wave is given by the equation λ = 2πc/ω. These are called thermal radiations. One method of observing this wave nature characteristic is through the interference and diffraction of electromagnetic radiation. The particle nature of electromagnetic radiation \n . For example, the standard radio broadcast band extends from a frequency of 550 kHz to 1600 kHz. The quantum nature of EM radiation and its interaction with matter. Planck’s Quantum Theory of Electromagnetic Radiation Some of the experimental phenomena such as diffraction and interference can be explained by the wave nature of the electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure = Force/area = change in momentum/time x area. There are two basic types of radiation. A particle of light is called a photon. A photon is a quantum (energy packet) of light. The speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. WAVELENGTH Dual nature of EM waves - law EM radiation is so-named because it has electric and magnetic fields that simultaneously oscillate in planes mutually perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation through space. In physics, it is well known that the wave equation for a typical wave is ∇ = ∂ ∂ The problem now is to prove that Maxwell's equations explicitly prove that the electric and magnetic fields create electromagnetic radiation. Although all electromagnetic radiations have the same basic properties, we assign different names to radiations with different frequencies (or different wavelengths). Frequency (ν) is the number of crests passing a fixed point in a given period. 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