The Somali National Army committed to invade the Ogaden on July 12, 1977, according to Ethiopian Ministry of National Defense documents (some other sources state July 13 or 23 July). (Retired and became a Professor of Strategy in Mogadishu Somalia), Col. Ali Hussein commanded SNA in two front's, Qabri Dahare and Harar. , Alongside Barre, the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) that assumed power after President Sharmarke's assassination was led by Lieutenant Colonel Salaad Gabeyre Kediye and Chief of Police Jama Korshel. The SNA retreated from Dirir-Dewa. Even so, the fighting was fierce and surged back and forth. ( Aftoje became a General and a military attache to France). Degehabur fell on 30 April and Nasibu withdrew to Harar. (male, 14/03/2011), for example, insisted that the Ogaden war was much more lethal than the Eritrean war of independence, and an elderly anonymous lady (17/02/2011) could not understand the level of attention South Sudan receives, for she sees this as ‘a much younger conflict with far fewer casualties’. A second armed clash in 1988 was resolved when the two countries agreed to withdraw their militaries from the border. The Ogaden War, or the Ethio-Somali war (Somali: Dagaalkii Xoraynta Soomaali Galbeed), was a Somali military offensive between July 1977 and March 1978 over the Ethiopian sector of Ogaden, which began with the Somali invasion of Ethiopia. By 23 March 1978, the Ethiopians and Cubans had recaptured more than two-thirds of the Ogaden, marking the official end of the war. The Ogaden: a forgotten war draining a forgotten people Fears of famine are rising in the country's troubled and barren eastern badlands A boy takes care of a … But, according to Baer, Graziani had approximately 30,000 men. Harbi was killed in a plane crash two years later. On 3 July 2007, an ONLF ambush outside the town of Shilaabo resulted in the deaths of 43 soldiers, the separatists suffered 5 casualties and 8 rebels were injured. Abdullahi Geelqaad commanded Dirir-Dewa. The biggest obstacle to the Italian advance was heavy rain, swollen rivers, and thick mud. In June 1977, Mengistu accused Somalia of infiltrating SNA soldiers into the Somali area to fight alongside the WSLF. Cuban military intervention; The Insurgency in Ogaden was an armed conflict that took place from 1994 to 2018. In roughly ten days of fighting, the Italians suffered over 2,000 casualties. Death has become an increasingly accepted fact, and in Ethiopia they are reserving graves for people who have not yet been killed.  Djibouti finally gained its independence from France in 1977, and Hassan Gouled Aptidon, who had campaigned for a yes vote in the referendum of 1958, eventually wound up as Djibouti's first president (1977–1991). Ethiopia was saved from a major defeat and a permanent loss of territory through a massive airlift of military supplies worth $1 billion, the arrival of between 12,000–24,000 Cuban troops sent by Fidel Castro to win a second African victory (after his first success in Angola in 1975–76), and 1,500 Soviet advisors, led by General Vasily Petrov. , The Libyans of the first column encountered stiff resistance that next day, and made only limited progress in the next two days. By 17 August elements of the Somali Army had reached the outskirts of the strategic city of Dire Dawa. The Somalis tallied their losses. Graziani's only resistance on his march to Jijiga and Harar was the never ending rain. Not only was the country's second largest military airbase located here, as well as Ethiopia's crossroads into the Ogaden, but Ethiopia's rail lifeline to the Red Sea ran through this city, and if the Somalis held Dire Dawa, Ethiopia would be unable to export its crops or bring in equipment needed to continue the fight. (Both Officers were lLater chosen to reinforce the Harar campaign; Col Aare eventually became a military attache and retired as a private citizen after the collapse of SNA in 1990). Background: As the conflict intensifies in the Ogaden desert war, the casualties are mounting on both sides. Almost one-third of the regular SNA soldiers, three-eighths of the armored units and half of the Somali Air Force (SAF) were lost. The attacking forces did suffer some early setbacks; Ethiopian defenders at Dire Dawa and Jijiga inflicted heavy casualties on assaulting forces. However, the Somalis were unable to press their advantage because of the high attrition on its tank battalions, constant Ethiopian air attacks on their supply lines, and the onset of the rainy season which made the dirt roads unusable. The ground forces fielded by Graziani were almost entirely "mechanized" and made use of an air component that was empowered to inflict the maximum losses on the enemy. The strong defensive positions were designed by Wehib Pasha and known as the "Hindenburg Wall".  This was part of a broader effort to unite all of the Somali-inhabited territories in the Horn region into a Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn).  A column of Ethiopian and Cuban troops crossed northeast into the highlands between Jijiga and the border with Somalia, bypassing the SNA-WSLF force defending the Marda Pass. In the late 1970s, Samatar was the Chief Commanding Officer of the Somali National Army during the Ogaden Campaign. Barker indicates 38,000. Even though elements of the ONLF would later manage to slip back into the Ogaden, their actions had little impact.. Other communist countries offered assistance: the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen offered military assistance and North Korea helped train a "People's Militia"; East Germany likewise offered training, engineering and support troops. Her losses included over 6,000 killed, and about 400 Cubans and 100 South Yemenis also died. , The USSR, finding itself supplying both sides of a war, attempted to mediate a ceasefire.  Ras Nasibu himself went into exile with the Emperor. Deaths Are Put at 60,000 Since the Somali pullout, it is said, there have been 60,000 deaths in Ogaden, including 25,000 civilians and 6,000 Cuban soldiers supporting the Ethiopians.  Anthony Mockler does not express the same opinion of Wehib Pasha's defenses. 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